“Nutrition is the process of absorbing nutrients from the foods you eat.”
types of nutrition
• Carbohydrates –
Carbohydrates are energy-yielding nutrients and our main source of energy. They are easily digested and broken down into glucose, which the body uses to perform its many functions. The body receives 4 calories for every 1 gram of carbohydrates ingested.
Carbohydrates are grouped into
simple carbohydrates (sugars), complex carbohydrates (fiber) and starches.
and based on the glycemic index, it is classified as low, medium, and high
The glycemic index indicates how high and how quickly the blood sugar level changes after consuming carbohydrates. The higher the glycemic index, the more blood sugar rises and the longer it takes for it to return to normal. The best way to eat healthy is to focus on foods with a low glycemic index, and physical work also matters. Foods with a high glycemic index have been linked to an increased risk of heart disease and diabetes.
Carbohydrate requirements in our diet:
Carbohydrates should make up 45%-65% of the calories in your diet, which is about 225g-325g of carbs for someone on a 2000 calorie diet.
Healthy and unhealthy carbohydrate sources in our diet:
The healthiest carbohydrate sources are unprocessed or minimally processed whole grains, vegetables, fruits, and beans.
Unhealthier carbohydrate sources include white bread, pastries, sodas, and other highly processed or refined foods. These elements contribute to weight gain, interfere with weight loss, and promote diabetes and heart disease.
• Fats –
Fats are an essential part of the diet. One of the suppliers of energy and important in terms of fat-soluble vitamins.
1 gram of fat provides 37 kJ (9 kcal) of energy. Foods that contain a lot of fat provide a lot of energy.
There are different types of fats, including saturated fats and unsaturated fats.
Saturated fats are usually solid at room temperature while unsaturated fats are liquid.
A high intake of saturated or trans fats can have adverse health effects.
Foods high in polyunsaturated fats are essential for good health and overall health. Which is found in seafood such as tuna, mackerel and salmon, as well as nuts and canola and flaxseed oils.
• Fiber –
The fibrous, non-digestible part of our diet that is essential to digestive health.
Fiber is a type of carbohydrate. Although most carbohydrates are broken down into sugar molecules, fiber cannot be broken down into sugar molecules and instead passes through the body undigested. Fiber helps regulate the body’s use of sugar, helping to keep hunger and blood sugar in check.
Fiber should make up at least 5% of your daily caloric intake. Children and adults need at least 20 to 30 grams of fiber per day for good health and consume 2,000 calories a day. Fiber comes in two flavors, both of which are beneficial to health:
• Soluble fiber, which dissolves in water, can help lower glucose levels and lower blood cholesterol levels.
• Insoluble fiber, which doesn’t dissolve in water, can help move food through your digestive system, promoting regularity and preventing constipation.
• Minerals – Minerals are inorganic substances and essential nutrients needed in small amounts to keep you healthy. Minerals don’t give you energy or calories, but they are involved and help in the formation of bones and teeth. People have different needs depending on their age, gender, physiological condition (e.g. pregnancy) and sometimes also their state of health. Some minerals are required in greater amounts than others, such as calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium and chloride. Others are required in smaller amounts and are sometimes referred to as trace elements, such as iron, zinc, iodine, fluoride, selenium, and copper.
protein – proteins are made by combining smaller amino acids. Proteins in food are known as macronutrients and they contribute energy (calories) to the body. There are 20 amino acids used to build proteins.
Since all cells and tissues contain protein, it is therefore essential for the growth and repair of muscle and other body tissues. Hair and nails are mainly made up of protein. You also use protein to make enzymes, hormones, and other body chemicals. Protein is an important building block of bones, muscles, cartilage, skin and blood.
Each gram of protein contains 4 calories. The reference nutrient intake (RNI) for adults is set at 0.75 g protein per kg body weight per day.
Sources of protein include meat products (hamburger, fish, chicken), dairy products (cheese, milk, yogurt, cottage cheese), eggs, tofu, lentils, and soy milk.
vitamins – vitamins are organic compounds that are essential in very small amounts to support normal physiological function. Vitamins don’t give you calories or energy, but they do help you stay healthy.
There are two types of vitamins: water-soluble and fat-soluble.
Water-soluble vitamins include vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, B12, vitamin C, biotin and folic acid. They are not stored in the body in large amounts, and excess material is lost through the urine.
Water and fat soluble vitamins play an important role in many chemical processes in the body. Fat-soluble vitamins include vitamins A, D, E, and K, which can be stored in your body. High levels of fat-soluble vitamins are not recommended as they can cause health problems.
• Water – Water contains no calories and is not a source of fat, protein or carbohydrates. Although pure water does not contain any additional nutrients. Water is a nutrient all its own that helps every cell in your body function properly as a vehicle for transporting other nutrients since 60 percent of the human body is made up of water.
• Water regulates body fluids
• Water helps digestion and fills you up (so you eat less)
• Water prevents muscle fatigue and dehydration
• Water supports the kidney’s process of ridding the body of toxins
To meet the Institute of Medicine’s recommendations for water intake, men should drink about 13 cups of nonalcoholic fluids per day, while women should drink about 9 cups